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Does Vinegar Increase Uric Acid?
Does Vinegar Increase Uric Acid?

Gout sufferers want to know how vinegar consumption affects their uric acid. But without testing, we can only guess. Anyway, there are some recent studies that suggest there may be movement towards proper clinical trials for vinegar-based uric acid treatments.

Vinegar & Uric Acid Research Topics

I cannot find studies about treating gouty humans with vinegar. But here are 4 examples that show some hope for future trials.

Vinegar Doesn't Change Uric Acid

My first study shows that 15 ml apple vinegar helps obese people lose weight. With greater losses at 30 ml per day. But no change in uric acid (UA) for either dose.

Kondo, T., Kishi, M., Fushimi, T., Ugajin, S. and Kaga, T., 2009. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 73(8), pp.1837-1843.

no significant changes in measurements of liver function (AST, ALT, and γ-GTP) or kidney function (Cr, BUN, and UA) were found throughout the test period (data not shown).

A later study of apple vinegar records similar findings. Whereby vinegar helps diabetes but has no effect on uric acid.

Hosseini, Z.S.M., Hosseini, J., Nabati, S., Hasanshahi, G. and Mahmoodi, M., 2011. Survey on the anti-diabetic effects of vinegar on some biochemical factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Clinical Biochemistry-New York, 44(13), p.2.

FBS (P=0.006) and HbA1c (P=0.002) reduced significantly in the first group, while TG, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, urea, Cr, uric acid, AST, ALT, ALP did not show significant differences.

There are more studies reporting vinegar benefits without including uric acid values.

Alkalizing Vinegar Helps Uric Acid Excretion

This study uses an unspecified type of vinegar as one of many ingredients in an alkali diet. So I've included it as confirmation that vinegar consumption reduces acid load on the kidneys. Which in turn encourages uric acid excretion.

Kanbara, A., Hakoda, M. and Seyama, I., 2010. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion. Nutrition journal, 9(1), pp.1-5.

Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet.

Vinegar Inhibits Uric Acid Production

Next is a lab-only (in-vitro) study of vinegar's ability to inhibit uric acid production. Comparing different types of commercial vinegar and one produced in the laboratory. Including seasoned vinegar, fruit vinegars, rice vinegars, and a lab-produced red-koji vinegar.

Lin, S.M., Wu, J.Y., Su, C., Ferng, S., Lo, C.Y. and Chiou, R.Y.Y., 2012. Identification and mode of action of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) and 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in vinegars. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 60(39), pp.9856-9862.

For more than four decades, allopurinol has been the only clinically available agent with XO inhibitory (XOI) activity and remains as a mainstay drug for treating hyperuricemia and gout, regardless of its well-documented hepatic and renal toxicity. […] As conceptually noted and communicated by gouty individuals, relieving gout-caused discomfort by ingesting indigenously fermented vinegars is highly effective, resulting in increased attention in research. […] 5-HMF and MTCA were identified as two of the active compounds, comprising the first scientific evidence given to support the relief of gout-caused discomfort by the ingestion of vinegars. In the future, the related in-depth investigation and product development deserve research interest and industrial attention.

Plum Vinegar & Uric Acid

The biggest problem with my next study is that it only shows how plum vinegar shows potential as a uric acid treatment in the lab. Otherwise, it's encouraging to see that both sorghum vinegar and plum vinegar could encourage uric acid excretion. Furthermore, plum vinegar could inhibit uric acid production. So the researchers recommend clinical trials with gout sufferers.

Chiu, H.F., Cheng, Y., Lu, Y.Y., Han, Y.C., Shen, Y.C., Venkatakrishnan, K. and Wang, C.K., 2017. Anti‐mutagenicity, hypouricemic and antioxidant activities of alkaloids from vinegar and mei vinegar. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 41(4), p.e12373.

The acetic acid presented in the vinegar might help to nullify the uric acid (urate) crystal formation by improving the solubility and thus lower the MSU crystal deposition in the joints and subsequently reduce the incidence of gout. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased acetic acid content of MV with higher urate solubility property and higher XOI activity makes it has a potent hypouricemic agent. Nevertheless, preclinical and clinical studies are required to confirm its hypouricemic effect.

Soy Vinegar & Hyperuricemia

Finally,for now, researchers have studied the effects of fermented soybean vinegar on gout-induced rats. Having tested different fermentation periods, they found 20 days to be most effective. With an extract of 2-day fermented vinegar inhibiting uric acid at a comparable rate to allopurinol. Subsequent blood tests on uric acid showed dose-dependent reduction. Also, kidney and liver function tests showed normal activity during soy vinegar extract treatment.

Pyo, Y.H., Hwang, J.Y. and Seong, K.S., 2018. Hypouricemic and antioxidant effects of soy vinegar extracts in hyperuricemic mice. Journal of medicinal food, 21(12), pp.1299-1305.

The results suggest that soy vinegar brewed by using Monascus-fermented soybeans may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia.

Does Vinegar Increase Uric Acid?
Does Vinegar Increase Uric Acid?

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